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Female to Male Gender Reassignment Surgery (FTM GRS)

Female-to-male gender reassignment surgery (FTM GRS) is a complex and irreversible genital surgery for female transsexual who is diagnosed with gender identity disorder and has a strong desire to live as male. The procedure is to remove all female genital organs including the uterus, ovaries, and vagina with the construction of male genitalia composed of the penis and scrotum. 

The patient who is fit for this surgery must strictly follow the standard of care set by the World Professional Association of Transgender Healthcare (WPATH) or equivalent criteria; Express desire or live in another gender role (Female gender) long enough, under hormonal replacement therapy, evaluated and approved by a psychiatrist or other qualified professional gender therapist. 

Apart from genital surgery, the patient would seek other procedures to allow them to live as males smoothly such as breast amputation, facial surgery, body surgery, etc. 


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The surgery is very complicated and only a handful of surgeons are able to perform this procedure. It is a multi-staged procedure, the first stage is the removal of the uterus, ovary, and vagina. The duration of the procedure is 2-3 hours. The second and later stages are penis and scrotum reconstruction which is at least 6 months later. There are several techniques for penile reconstruction depending on the type of tissue such as skin/fat of the forearm, skin/fat of the thigh, or adjacent tissue around the clitoris. This second stage of surgical time is between 3-5 hours. A penile prosthesis can be incorporated simultaneously or at a later stage. The scrotal prosthesis is also implanted later. 


The procedure is done under general anesthesia and might be combined with spinal anesthesia for faster recovery by reducing the usage of anesthetic gas. 


The patient will be hospitalized as an in-patient for between 5-7 days for each stage depending on the technique and surgeon. The patient will have a urinary catheter at all times in the hospital. 

Additional Information

The most frequent complication of FTM GRS is bleeding, wound infection, skin flap or graft necrosis, urinary stenosis and fistula, unsightly scar, etc. The revision procedure is scar revision, hair transplant, or tattooing to camouflage unsightly scars.  

During hospitalization, the patient must be restricted in bed continuously or intermittently for several days between 3-5 days. After release from the hospital, the patients return to their normal lives but not having to do physical exercise during the first 2 months after surgery. The patient will have a urinary catheter continuously for several weeks to avoid a urinary fistula. If the patient has a penile prosthesis, it would need at least 6 months before sexual intimacy. 


With good surgical technique, the result is very satisfying with an improved quality of life. The patient is able to live in a male role completely and happily either on their own or with their female or male partners.